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One of the most complex tasks TCP/IP has to
perform is to determine whether or not a given IP address exists on the same
subnet. The task isn’t really that complicated once you understand how TCP/IP
uses its IP address and subnet mask.
An IP address looks something like this:
192.168.10.52. IP addresses always contain four numbers from 0–255, separated
by periods. A portion of the IP address is called the network ID and acts as a unique identifier for a particular subnet.
The rest of the IP address is called the host ID and identifies a particular computer or network device on
that subnet uniquely. How can you tell which part of the IP address is which? By
using the subnet mask. A subnet mask looks a lot like an IP address, with four
groups of numbers: 255.255.255.0. Remember, computers are binary machines that
can understand only in zeros and ones. For the subnet mask to make sense, you
have to translate it and the IP address
You can switch the Windows Calculator into Scientific view, which
enables you to convert numbers from decimal to binary.
Convert all the four groups (octets) of numbers into binary code. For example, an IP address of
192.168.10.41 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 look like this in binary:
Address or Mask 1st octet 2nd octet 3rd octet 4th octet
192.168.10.41 11000000 10101000
255.255.255.0 11111111 11111111
Everyplace you see a “1” in the subnet mask
corresponds to the portion of the IP address that is the network ID. Everyplace
you see a “0” in the subnet mask corresponds
to the portion of the IP address that is the
host ID. Here, the network ID is 192.168.10, and the host ID is 41.TCP/IP treats
everything with an IP address that starts with 192.168.10 as if it were on the
same subnet. Any IP address that starts with something other than 192.168.10 is
treated as if it existed on another subnet.
Basic TCP/IP Services
A number of the protocols in the TCP/IP suite
are considered core protocols, which means they are usually present on any
network that uses TCP/IP. The core protocols provide basic services that no
network can do without. These services include
transmission. Is handled by more than one protocol: the User
Datagram Protocol (UDP) and the Transport Control Protocol (TCP). Computers use
UDP when they need to send a small packet of data and don’t care if the remote
computer actually receives the data. Computers use TCP when loads of data needs
to be transmitted because TCP allows the remote computer to reply, confirming
its receipt of the data.
by the Domain Name System, or DNS, protocol. DNS enables people to use
easy-to-remember names like www.microsoft.com and allows computers to translate those names to
numeric IP addresses.
Internet Name System (WINS). Prior
versions of Windows also use WINS to convert computer names into IP addresses.
Windows Server 2003 is compatible with WINS.
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